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Introduction to the lines on Folien 1



On Folien 1 there are what appears to be "two curved parallel lines" about 80 mm apart. The defence argued that these lines represent the top and bottom edge of a drinking glass of about 80 mm high - a glass such as your typical whisky tumbler.

It is notable that none of the defence experts ever magnified and investigated the shape and curvature of the lines. Intentionally or unintentionally they only assumed the lines are both curved and parallel. Thus, they made their findings based on observations alone. Industry standards, such as ACE-V protocols, prohibit this. You must test and verify what you claim. (Click here to see how Zeelenberg determined the "curvature" of the bottom line.)

Let us look at some basic geometry. Since a round conical drinking glass is essentialy part of a cone, when you fold such a glass open, you will find that the top and bottom edges form part of full circles. By way of simple geometrical calculations the radii of these circles can be calculated from the known dimensions of any round and conical glass. So, if we feed the top and bottom diameters and the height of the glass into the programmed spreadsheet, it will give us the the radii of the circles. Therefore, we can see how the curves would look like.

The basic principle is that the radii of the circles are influenced by the difference between the top and bottom diameters. The closer they are to being the same, the straighter the lines would be. The bigger the difference, the more curved the lines would be (circles become smaller).


For the lines on Folien 1 to be representations of the top and bottom ends of a conical drinking glass, both lines need to be circular arcs (a circular arc is a circular curve which is part of a circle). The circles also need to share the same origin (epicentre). Therefore the two arcs need to be concentric.

Our conclusion is that the lines on Folien 1 are not circular arcs and that they are not a concentric unit. They cannot be representations of the top and bottom edges of a round conical drinking glass, as was argued by the defence experts.

At the links below, we took a closer look at both the top and bottom lines. In the "Full Lines Report" we also give more background.

Focus on Folien 1's top line

Focus on Folien 1's bottom line

In order to understand the process and how folien works, it is advised to read through the "Lift Process Report".



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